II. Fabrication That Lacks Basic Knowledge of Science and Technology
The Cox Report deliberately distorts the development history of China's space undertakings, alleging that China "acquired'' the technological know-how from the United States, which helped its missile and space programs. In fact, China's space sector has independently accomplished development from scratch to the world's most advanced level by totally relying on its own scientific forces. Under the circumstances of all-round blockade and embargo imposed by the United States and other Western countries, China successfully developed intermediate and short-range missiles in 1964, and succeeded in launching its first man-made earth satellite in 1970, and a recoverable satellite in 1975. There were further developments between the late 1970s and the early 1980s. For example, China successfully launched a long-range rocket into the Pacific Ocean in 1980, and a solid-propellant rocket from a submarine in 1982, and further inserted a communications satellite into a geostationary orbit in 1984. These achievements had all been made before China entered the international commercial satellite launching market, and, again, were accomplished without any foreign assistance.
The Cox Report says, "The PRC first began developing its own communications satellites in the early 1970s, based on Western technology.'' The fact is that, on the founding of New China, the United States and Western countries began imposing an all-round blockade and embargo against the country. The Paris-based Coordinating Committee for Export Control was then established to strictly restrict high-tech exports to China. Against this historical background, how could China rely on the United States and Western countries to develop its satellite technology? The report asserts that China used every means to "steal" US satellite technology. This is an absurd supposition. As everyone knows, China began launching US-made satellites in 1990. However, China has since 1970 successfully launched more than 40 domestic satellites of various types. China now has mature technologies to design and produce different types of orbital vehicles, such as scientific experimentation satellites, recoverable satellites, geostationary orbit communications satellites, and meteorological and earth resources satellites. The Cox Report also claims that the control processor on the Dongfanghong-III Satellite, developed independently by the Chinese Academy of Space Technology, was produced by the American company Matra Marconi Space. Obviously, this is not an error resulting from the carelessness of those who produced the report.
The Cox Report also mentions the return of Chinese scientist Qian Xuesen to the motherland, and takes this as an example to falsely claim China's missile technology was "stolen'' from the United States. Chinese scientists have expressed great indignation over this. In 1935, Dr Qian Xuesen went to study in the United States as a Tsinghua University student at public expense. He then stayed on and worked there. After the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, the young, promising Dr Qian, who possesses high national pride, confidence and integrity, yearned to return to the motherland. At that time, however, McCarthyism prevailed in the United States. The US Government persecuted him under the pretext of various "unwarranted'' charges. Through representations made by the Chinese Government on many occasions, Dr Qian finally returned to the motherland in 1955. Restricted by the US Government, he did not bring back with him any research materials, and he even left behind some of his personal articles of daily use. The Cox Report alleges that, since Qian Xuesen had been working on the US Titan intercontinental missile program, he illegally brought back with him to China the US missile technology and related information. This is purely fictitious slander. According to the Early Development in Nuclear Force Guidance compiled by the FAS, the US Titan missile program was determined in October 1953 based on the suggestion of the US Air Force Strategic Missile Evaluation Committee (later called the VON NEUMAN Committee), but related government departments formally signed contracts for development only in 1955. Prior to this, in July 1950, the security clearances qualifying Qian Xuesen to participate in secret research were canceled by the US Government, and he was detained. Although he was later released on parole, he was subject to restriction by the US Immigration Service and supervision by the Federal Bureau of Investigation until he left the United States in 1955. Cox and others seemed to be quite meticulous in writing this lengthy report. But, they even failed to make clear the sequence of events. This, perhaps, is not merely negligence.
In 1985, China entered the international commercial launching market, which by its nature represents an aspect of peaceful use of space technology and a normal, regular international service trade. However, the Cox Report asserts that China "stole'' or illegally "acquired'' US missile technology through commercial launches to promote its own missile capability. This not only is contrary to the facts, but also lacks basic knowledge of science and technology.
People with even slight scientific knowledge will know that a carrier rocket is developed on the basis of ballistic missiles. The carrier rocket and missile have different requirements in terms of guidance precision. The guidance of a rocket is mainly for controlling the orbital injection precision of satellite, while a missile's guidance system is to control the deviation during its three major phases of flight--the powered and unpowered flight phases and the re-entry phase--so as to ultimately achieve pinpoint accuracy in delivering the warhead on the selected target. Obviously, a missile requires greater precision in the guidance system than a carrier rocket. The greater the precision of a commercial satellite launch, the higher the cost. Generally, out of consideration of economic rationality, commercial launches do not require excessively high guidance technology. How can one use the rocket guidance technology for improving the guidance precision of missiles?
The Cox Report also says that the US carrier rocket fairing technique China has acquired through commercial satellite launches "may assist the design and improved reliability of future PRC MIRVed missiles, if the PRC decides to develop them, and of future submarine-launched ballistic missiles''. In fact, China has mature experience in fairing design. Prior to 1992, China had already developed two kinds of fairing, and succeeded in many launches under wind aloft conditions in winter season. The fairing of the LM-2E China uses in commercial launches was designed and produced on the basis of 10 successful flights of that used for the Long March rocket series. China needs not acquire American fairing technology through commercial launching services, but has relied on its own strength to accomplish all improvements and developments.
What deserves special mention is that a distinct difference exists between the design technology of the fairing on a carrier rocket and that of a multiple-warhead missile. The fairing of a multi-warhead missile requires an all-weather, omni-bearing operating environment; hence, an integrated design is generally adopted. For carrier rockets, however, the technique of lateral separation design is normally used. Therefore, it is out of the question to make use of the rocket's fairing design technique for improving that of a multiple-warhead missile.
The Cox Report says China "acquired'' the smart dispenser technique through iridium satellite launches and has used it in its MIRV (multiple independently targeted re-entry vehicle) dispensing technology. In fact, before launching an iridium satellite, China had succeeded many times in launching multiple satellites atop a single rocket. In July 1990, China succeeded in its first launch of a dual payload atop a LM-2C rocket, including a Pakistani satellite. The two satellites were placed respectively in LEO (low earth orbit) and geostationary transfer orbit. In September 1990, China used a LM-4 to successfully place three satellites into solar stationary orbit. In October 1992, the LM-2C rocket carried a Sweden FREJA satellite and a Chinese recoverable satellite into the space, inserting them into two different LEO. In February 1994, a LM-3A was launched with Experiment-4 satellite and a dummy payload. This fact indicates that China has already mastered, and has been continuously improving, its dispenser design technique. There is no key technology hard to master, let alone any need to make use of iridium satellite launches for improving China's MIRV technique.