from the FAS Project on Government Secrecy
Volume 2007, Issue No. 127
December 28, 2007

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A good map can tell you where you are and show you how to get to where you want to go. What could be more important?

A recent U.S. Army Field Manual explains the rudiments of map reading. But distribution of the manual is restricted, and it has not been approved for public release.

To begin at the beginning: "A map is a graphic representation of a portion of the earth's surface drawn to scale, as seen from above. It uses colors, symbols, and labels to represent features found on the ground."

"All [military] operations require a supply of maps; however, the finest maps available are worthless unless the map user knows how to read them."

A copy of the manual was obtained by Secrecy News.

See "Map Reading and Land Navigation," Field Manual FM 3-25.26, January 2005 (change 1, August 30, 2006) (288 pages, 25 MB PDF file):


Establishing civilian control of intelligence and security services is a challenge and a crucial milestone for any aspiring democracy. Among other post-Soviet countries of Eastern Europe, Ukraine has made some remarkable strides in this direction.

"As Ukraine continues the process of democratic consolidation, the issue of intelligence oversight remains vital, to ensure political accountability and financial efficiency," according to a recent master's thesis on the subject. "Oversight of intelligence is also important to the political initiatives Ukraine has undertaken to improve ties to NATO and the EU."

The thesis, by Lt. Col. Oleksii Petrov of the Ukraine Ministry of Defense, presents an updated account of the organization of Ukraine intelligence services, and an explanation of the legal framework in which they operate.

The government of Ukraine publicly discloses current and retrospective spending levels for its various intelligence services, which is more than the U.S. has been able to manage.

Thus, the 2007 budget for the Foreign Intelligence Service of Ukraine (FISU) is 248 million grivnas (around $50 million), and the agency employs 4350 personnel, according to online budget documents cited and translated by the author.

See "Political and Budgetary Oversight of the Ukrainian Intelligence Community: Processes, Problems and Prospects for Reform" by Oleksii Petrov, Naval Postgraduate School, September 2007:


Noteworthy new and updated reports from the Congressional Research Service include the following.

"Tanzania: Background and Current Conditions," December 20, 2007:

"Data Mining and Homeland Security: An Overview," updated December 5, 2007:

"Polygraph Use by the Department of Energy: Issues for Congress," updated December 10, 2007:

"Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations," updated December 12, 2007:

"China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues," updated December 13, 2007:


Secrecy News is written by Steven Aftergood and published by the Federation of American Scientists.

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